Friday, September 25, 2015

Feel Good: Volunteer With AARP Foundation Tax-Aide for 2016

http://www.aarp.org/money/taxes/info-2006/volunteer_aarp_tax_aide.html

Feb. 2015

Help people and give your mind a workout, too.

AARP Foundation Tax-Aide is the nation's largest volunteer-run tax preparation and assistance service. And we want you to join us.

We started in 1968 with just four volunteers at one site preparing 100 tax returns. AARP Foundation Tax-Aide now involves more than 35,000 volunteers and serves 2.6 million taxpayers annually at more than 5,000 sites nationwide. In fact, we're one of the most effective volunteer programs in America.

But even though we've grown a lot, we're still all about the grassroots. You'll be helping people in your own community with a much-needed service that's free, individualized and has no strings attached.

Almost four out of five people who turn to AARP Foundation Tax-Aide are 60 or older. Household incomes aren't high. For many of them, a tax refund could mean they won't have to choose between paying for groceries and keeping the lights on.

Who volunteers?

People like you. And there's a role for everyone.

Good with numbers? Be a tax volunteer.

You'll work with taxpayers directly; filling out tax returns and helping them seek a refund. Experience isn't necessary — we'll train you on the latest tax preparation forms and software.

Skilled in all things digital? Be a technology coordinator.

You'll manage computer equipment, ensure taxpayer data security and provide technical assistance to volunteers at multiple sites.

Love working with people? Be a greeter.

You'll welcome taxpayers, help organize their paperwork and manage the overall flow of service.

Want to help us get the word out? Be a communications coordinator.

You'll promote AARP Foundation Tax-Aide and recruit volunteers in your community.

Have a knack for running things? Be a leadership or administrative volunteer.

Manage volunteers, make sure program operations run smoothly, track volunteer assignments and site activities, and maintain quality control.

Speak a second language? You're urgently needed!

We have a big demand for bilingual speakers. Dedicated translators who can assist our volunteers are also welcome.

Get the joy and satisfaction of helping others by applying to join the AARP Foundation Tax-Aide volunteer team today! Your expertise will be appreciated more than you can imagine.

AARP Foundation Tax-Aide is offered in conjunction with the IRS.

Sign up to be an AARP Foundation Tax-Aide Volunteer. Go

Thursday, August 27, 2015

uitting smoking after heart attack gives quick boost to mental health, quality of life

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/wuso-qsa082415.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
Quitting smoking after heart attack gives quick boost to mental health, quality of life

Washington University School of Medicine

A new study shows that quitting smoking after a heart attack has immediate benefits, including less chest pain, better quality of daily life and improved mental health. Many of these improvements became apparent as little as one month after quitting and are more pronounced after one year, according to the research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

"Even in people who smoked and had a heart attack, we see fairly rapid improvements in important measures of health and quality of life when they quit smoking after their heart attacks, compared with people who continue smoking," said senior author Sharon Cresci, MD, assistant professor of medicine.

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Making a mistake can be rewarding, study finds

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uosc-mam082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
Making a mistake can be rewarding, study finds

MRI study shows failure is a rewarding experience when the brain has a chance to learn from its mistakes

University of Southern California

Many political leaders, scientists, educators and parents believe that failure is the best teacher.

Scientists have long understood that the brain has two ways of learning. One is avoidance learning, which is a punishing, negative experience that trains the brain to avoid repeating mistakes. The other is reward-based learning, a positive, reinforcing experience in which the brain feels rewarded for reaching the right answer.

A new MRI study by USC and a group of international researchers has found that having the opportunity to learn from failure can turn it into a positive experience - if the brain has a chance to learn from its mistakes.

"We show that, in certain circumstances, when we get enough information to contextualize the choices, then our brain essentially reaches towards the reinforcement mechanism, instead of turning toward avoidance," said Giorgio Coricelli, a USC Dornsife associate professor of economics and psychology.

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Coricelli said this process is similar to what the brain experiences when feeling regret: "With regret, for instance, if you have done something wrong, then you might change your behavior in the future," he said.

Is incense bad for your health?

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/s-iib082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
Is incense bad for your health?
Comparison between indoor use of cigarettes and incense provides surprising results
Springer

The burning of incense might need to come with a health warning. This follows the first study evaluating the health risks associated with its indoor use. The effects of incense and cigarette smoke were also compared, and made for some surprising results.
[Not surprising to me. Any kind of smoke is bad for us.

•••••

During the burning process, particle matter is released into the air. This can be breathed in and trapped in the lungs, and is known to cause an inflammatory reaction. Not much research has been done on incense as a source of air pollution, although it has been linked to the development of lung cancer, childhood leukemia and brain tumors.

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Incense smoke was found to be mutagenic, meaning that it contains chemical properties that could potentially change genetic material such as DNA, and therefore cause mutations. It was also more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the cigarette used in the study. This means that incense smoke is potentially more toxic to a cell, and especially to its genetic contents. Mutagenics, genotoxins and cytotoxins have all been linked to the development of cancers.

Smoke from the sampled incense was found to consist almost exclusively (99 percent) of ultrafine and fine particles, and is therefore likely to have adverse health effects. Taken together, the four incense smoke samples contained 64 compounds. While some of these are irritants or are only slightly harmful (hypotoxic), ingredients in two of the samples are known to be highly toxic.

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How TV's subliminal influence can affect women's perception of pregnancy, birth

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoc-hts082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
How TV's subliminal influence can affect women's perception of pregnancy, birth
UC sociology research reveals TV reality shows and other programming have a stronger-than-anticipated influence on pregnant women across a wide educational and cultural spectrum
University of Cincinnati

•••••

As part of a larger research project funded by a National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant, Danielle Bessett, University of Cincinnati assistant professor of sociology in the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences examined how women understand their television viewing practices regarding pregnancy and birth.

Her research, which she will present at the 110th annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, reveals the profound influence that reality TV and fictional programs have on pregnant women's perceptions of pregnancy and the birthing process, even when they do not necessarily believe they are affected.

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tags: influence

Predicting who will murder his wife or his family

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/nu-pww082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
Predicting who will murder his wife or his family
New understanding of men who kill intimate partners could prevent these murders
Northwestern University

  • Murderers who kill intimate partners and family members have a similar profile

  • One-third of all women murdered in U.S. are killed by male partners

  • Wives and family members wrongly think 'my husband or son would never hurt me'

Murderers who kill intimate partners and family members have a significantly different psychological and forensic profile from murderers who kill people they don't know, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study that examined the demographics, psychiatric history and neuropsychology of these individuals.

The new knowledge about murderers who commit what is called spontaneous domestic homicide -- emotionally driven crimes that are not premeditated -- could enable early intervention to prevent the homicide, the authors said.

Domestic homicide is one of the most common and frequent types of murder in the U.S.

One-third of all women murdered in the U.S. are killed by their male partners including husbands, ex-husbands, boyfriends and ex-boyfriends. An estimated 25 percent of women will be victims of severe domestic violence by an intimate partner in their lifetimes.

•••••

The study on spontaneous domestic homicides found these killers have more severe mental illness (particularly psychotic disorders), few previous felony convictions, are less intelligent and have more cognitive impairment. The paper was published Aug. 21 in the early view online edition of the Journal of Forensic Sciences.

"These crimes are often preventable if family members are more informed about the potential danger from having someone who is severely mentally ill in the home and who may have shown violent tendencies in the past," Hanlon said. "Family members may lull themselves into a state of false beliefs thinking 'my son would never hurt me' or 'my husband may have a short fuse but he would never seriously harm me.'"

"The fact is the husband or son may very well harm the wife or mother," Hanlon said.

These murders are not a premeditated, strategic type of killing, noted Hanlon, who testified in the James Holmes Colorado theater mass murder trial in Denver in July.

"These murders are in the heat of passion and generally involve drugs or alcohol and often are driven by jealousy or revenge following a separation or a split," Hanlon said. "This is grabbing the kitchen knife out of the drawer in a fit of anger and stabbing her 42 times."

Another scenario is a murder committed by a mentally ill son or another family member who is psychotic and thinks the victim is plotting against him.

Intimate partners and family members need to notify the authorities that they are concerned about potential harm and remove themselves from the situation, Hanlon recommended. "You can stay with relatives, call domestic violence hotlines and say, 'I'm scared something is going to happen to me,'" Hanlon said. "Start the wheels turning and get assistance."

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Many parents unaware of e-cigarette dangers to children?

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/wuso-mpu082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
Many parents unaware of e-cigarette dangers to children?
Washington University School of Medicine

As the use of e-cigarettes has risen dramatically in the United States in recent years, so have calls to poison centers about them. Yet many parents who use e-cigarettes - or "vape" - aren't aware of the dangers to children, according to a new study at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

The devices are used like typical cigarettes but instead of tobacco, they vaporize a liquid mixture of nicotine, glycerin and glycol ethers. The liquid form is flavored, which appeals to children. If ingested, a teaspoon of this "e-liquid" can be lethal to a child, and smaller amounts can cause nausea and vomiting that require emergency care. Exposure to skin also can sicken children.

•••••

The researchers found that 36 percent of the e-cigarette users neither locked up e-liquid bottles nor used childproof caps. Such caps, while required in Europe, are not mandated in the United States. E-liquid most commonly was stored in a drawer or cupboard (34 percent), a purse or bag (22 percent) or on an open counter (13 percent), the study showed.

"Three percent of the people in our study said a child of theirs had tried to drink the e-liquid," Garbutt said. "The easiest way to lower risk is to store e-liquid out of the reach of children. Open counters and shelves, unlocked drawers, and purses and bags aren't safe storage places."

Last year, a toddler in New York died after ingesting liquid nicotine intended for use in an e-cigarette.

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NASA finds vegetation essential for limiting city warming effects

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/nsfc-nfv082515.php

Public Release: 25-Aug-2015
NASA finds vegetation essential for limiting city warming effects

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Cities are well known hot spots - literally. The urban heat island effect has long been observed to raise the temperature of big cities by 1 to 3°C (1.8 to 5.4°F), a rise that is due to the presence of asphalt, concrete, buildings, and other so-called impervious surfaces disrupting the natural cooling effect provided by vegetation. According to a new NASA study that makes the first assessment of urbanization impacts for the entire continental United States, the presence of vegetation is an essential factor in limiting urban heating.

Impervious surfaces' biggest effect is causing a difference in surface temperature between an urban area and surrounding vegetation. The researchers, who used multiple satellites' observations of urban areas and their surroundings combined into a model, found that averaged over the continental United States, areas covered in part by impervious surfaces, be they downtowns, suburbs, or interstate roads, had a summer temperature 1.9°C higher than surrounding rural areas. In winter, the temperature difference was 1.5 °C higher in urban areas.

"This has nothing to do with greenhouse gas emissions. It's in addition to the greenhouse gas effect. This is the land use component only," said Lahouari Bounoua, research scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and lead author of the study.

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The urban heat island effect occurs primarily during the day when urban impervious surfaces absorb more solar radiation than the surrounding vegetated areas, resulting in a few degrees temperature difference. The urban area has also lost the trees and vegetation that naturally cool the air. As a by-product of photosynthesis, leaves release water back into to the atmosphere in a process called evapotranspiration, which cools the local surface temperature the same way that sweat evaporating off a person's skin cools them off. Trees with broad leaves, like those found in many deciduous forests on the East coast, have more pores to exchange water than trees with needles, and so have more of a cooling effect.

•••••

In cities like Phoenix built in the desert, the urban area actually has a cooling effect because of irrigated lawns and trees that wouldn't be there without the city.

•••••

At the human level, a rise of 1°C can raise energy demands for air conditioning in the summer from 5 to 20 percent in the United States, according the Environmental Protection Agency. So even though 0.3°C may seem like a small difference, it still may have impact on energy use, said Bounoua, especially when urban heat island effects are exacerbated by global temperature rises due to climate change.

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Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Global insecurity and refugee crisis linked to climate change

http://in.reuters.com/article/2015/08/26/climatechange-security-aid-idINL5N11044Q20150826

By Chris Arsenault
Aug. 26, 2015

Climate change is "adding fuel to the fire" of worsening political instability and unrest around the world, an expert told a security forum.

"We are experiencing a surprising uptick in global insecurity... partially due to our inability to manage climate stress," Columbia University professor Marc Levy, who conducts studies for U.S. government agencies, said on Tuesday at the Global Security Initiative, a research body in Arizona.

Ongoing violence in Syria, for example, is connected with climate change, Levy said.

A record drought in Syria from 2006 to 2010 wreaked havoc on agriculture, spurring an exodus of unemployed rural residents into urban areas and intensifying dissatisfaction with the government.

Refugees fleeing conflict and violence in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and Sudan are now streaming into Europe.

"Some of those migrants are fleeing areas that are hard to live in because of climate stress," he said, adding that global warming is just one of many factors contributing to the recent refugee crisis.

Nations grappling with climate change will be "tempted" to pursue policies that benefit themselves in the short term but make others worse off, he said.

Russia banned grain exports following a heat wave in 2010, benefiting domestic consumers, but causing a supply crunch, rising prices and hunger in other regions.

"Countries are buying up long-term access to farmland in sub-Saharan Africa," Levy said. "It's good for their food security, but it's creating problems" for African consumers and small landholders.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Crying has its perks

I have found that a good cry can make me feel better.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/s-chi082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Crying has its perks
Study investigates the effect of crying on one's mood
Springer

Yes, a good cry indeed might go a long way to make you feel better, says Asmir Gračanin of the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands, lead author of a study in Springer's journal Motivation and Emotion. These findings were established after a research team videotaped a group of participants while watching the emotionally charged films La vita è bella and Hachi: A Dog's Tale. Afterwards, the participants were asked a few times to reflect on how they felt.

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The two films shown to 60 participants are known to be tearjerkers. Immediately afterwards, the 28 participants who cried and the 32 who didn't shed a tear were asked how they felt. They also had to rate their moods 20 and 90 minutes later.

As expected, the mood of the non-criers was unchanged and unaffected immediately after seeing the films. The mood of the criers, on the other hand, was distinctively low and even took a dip. Within 20 minutes, however, their mood had returned to the level reported before the screening. Finally, after 90 minutes, the criers reported even a better mood than was the case before the films started. Such a mood shift was not tied to the number of times that a person cried during the films.

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Monday, August 24, 2015

Men who feel they fall short of 'masculine' gender norms may be prone to violence

No surprise. It's a shame how we treat our little boys.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/b-mwf082015.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Men who feel they fall short of 'masculine' gender norms may be prone to violence
More likely to commit violent assaults with weapons and to cause injury if they feel others see them in this light too
BMJ

Men whose image of themselves falls short of the traditional masculine gender norms, and who feel that others think this about them too, may be more prone to violence than men who feel comfortable in their own skin, suggests research published online in the journal Injury Prevention.

How men perceive traditional male gender norms and masculinity can affect their behaviour. In general, 'macho,' highly masculine men are more likely to engage in stereotypical male behaviours, such as risk taking, substance misuse, and acts of aggression, say the researchers.

But they wanted to find out if 'male discrepancy stress'--which describes men who see themselves as not only falling short of traditional masculine gender norms but who also worry that others view them in this light as well--had any impact on these behaviours.

•••••

Analysis of the results showed that men who considered themselves less masculine than average and who experienced male discrepancy stress were more likely to say they had committed violent assaults with a weapon as well as assaults resulting in injury to the victim than those who didn't feel highly masculine, but who didn't worry about it.

There was no association between discrepancy stress and average daily use of alcohol or drugs, but men who felt less masculine, and who weren't worried about it were the least likely to report violence or driving while under the influence.

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Better maternal diet linked to lower risk of heart abnormalities in babies at birth

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/b-bmd082015.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Better maternal diet linked to lower risk of heart abnormalities in babies at birth
Population study shows lower rate of certain congenital defects in babies of better fed mums before pregnancy
BMJ

A relatively healthy diet before pregnancy is linked to a lower rate of certain heart abnormalities in babies at birth, finds research published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal & Neonatal Edition).

Congenital heart defects are common, costly, and affect around 1% of newborns in the USA. Around one in four affected children will die infancy as a result. So far, doctors have few preventive options at their fingertips.

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Diet quality was assessed, using two validated scoring systems: the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy (DQI-P).

Mums in the top 25% (quartile) of diet quality, as assessed by the DQI-P, had a significantly lower risk of having a baby with certain heart defects than those in the bottom 25%.

Better diet was associated with a 37% lower risk of tetralogy of Fallot and a 23% lower risk of atrial septal defects.

Atrial septal defects refer to holes in the wall of the septum, which divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex abnormality which can lead to dangerously low oxygen levels in the blood going to the rest of the body.

This is an observational study so no definitive conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn, but similar associations have been found for diet before pregnancy and some other birth defects, including cleft palate and neural tube defects, note the researchers.

And they conclude that a reduced risk of some congenital heart defects may be an added bonus of eating a healthier diet before pregnancy, which reinforces current dietary recommendations for women wanting to get pregnant.

Influenza vaccines provide moderate protection throughout the entire flu season

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/asfm-ivp082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Influenza vaccines provide moderate protection throughout the entire flu season
American Society for Microbiology

Atlanta, GA - August 24, 2015 - Individuals who received the flu vaccine were protected for up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most flu seasons, according to a study presented at the 2015 International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Study backs flu vaccinations for elderly

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/bu-sbf082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Study backs flu vaccinations for elderly
Brown University

A new study of the records of millions of nursing home residents affirms the value of influenza vaccination among the elderly. The Brown University analysis found that between 2000 and 2009, the better matched the vaccine was for the influenza strain going around, the fewer nursing home residents died or were hospitalized.

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Study links physical activity to greater mental flexibility in older adults

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoia-slp082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Study links physical activity to greater mental flexibility in older adults

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

One day soon, doctors may determine how physically active you are simply by imaging your brain. Physically fit people tend to have larger brain volumes and more intact white matter than their less-fit peers. Now a new study reveals that older adults who regularly engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity have more variable brain activity at rest than those who don't. This variability is associated with better cognitive performance, researchers say.

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US Minimum Wage Exemptions under the Fair Labor Standards Act

See the link below for more exemptions from minimum wage and overtime laws:

http://www.dol.gov/elaws/esa/flsa/screen75.asp

Some employees are exempt from the overtime pay provisions, some from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions and some from the child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

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Following is a list of some of the more commonly used exemptions. This list is not intended to be all-inclusive.

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COMMONLY USED EXEMPTIONS

Commissioned sales employees of retail or service establishments are exempt from overtime if more than half of the employee's earnings come from commissions and the employee averages at least one and one-half times the minimum wage for each hour worked. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.

Computer professionals: Section 13(a)(17) of the FLSA provides that certain computer professionals paid at least $27.63 per hour are exempt from the overtime provisions of the FLSA.

Drivers, driver's helpers, loaders and mechanics are exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the FLSA if employed by a motor carrier, and if the employee's duties affect the safety of operation of the vehicles in transportation of passengers or property in interstate or foreign commerce. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.

Farmworkers employed on small farms are exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the FLSA. You may also wish to review the specific regulation. Young workers employed on small farms, with parental consent, are also exempt from the child labor provisions of the FLSA. For more information on exemptions from the child labor provisions of the FLSA in agriculture, click the underlined text. Other farmworkers are exempt from the FLSA's overtime provisions. You may also wish to review the specific regulation.

Salesmen, partsmen and mechanics employed by automobile dealerships are exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the FLSA. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.

Seasonal and recreational establishments: Employees employed by certain seasonal and recreational establishments are exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the FLSA. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.

Executive, administrative, professional and outside sales employees: (as defined in Department of Labor regulations) and who are paid on a salary basis are exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime provisions of the FLSA.

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Once dead, London’s Thames river is now teeming with seals, porpoises, and even a whale or two

http://qz.com/483977/once-dead-londons-thames-river-is-now-teeming-with-seals-porpoises-and-even-a-whale-or-two/

by Cassie Werber
Aug. 20, 2015

In 1957, the Thames—the huge river that flows though the city of London—was declared biologically dead. And for most of London’s history, its river has been more of a hazard than a habitat. Effluent from Victorian sewers flowed into it. Chemicals from the prolific 19th-century laundries that lined the banks killed off most of the fish, and pretty much anything else that formerly lived in what came to be called the Great Stink.

Yet now it’s teaming not just with fish but with marine mammals including seals and porpoises—and even the occasional whale.

•••••

The change began in the 1990s, with the passing of regulations relating the water industry and the treatment of waste water in urban areas, which imposed a duty on sewage companies to maintain adequate collecting systems and treatment plants. In 1996, the government’s Environment Agency gained oversight of the river.

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The creatures do not stay confined to the outer reaches of the Thames, where it meets the sea, but venture far upstream. Seals were reportedly sighted as far upstream as Hampton Court Palace, the report said, with the highest concentration around the financial hub of Canary Wharf. Harbour porpoises and bottlenose dolphins were also spotted but made it a little less far upstream. Whales were sited in the river reaches nearer the sea—though one errant northern bottlenose whale made it as far as Battersea Bridge, very close to the Houses of Parliament, and died during a rescue operation.

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Sexual-minority men more empathic towards fellow minorities

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoh-smm082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Sexual-minority men more empathic towards fellow minorities
New UH study investigates racial attitudes, empathy among heterosexual, sexual-minority white men
University of Houston

White sexual-minority men may be more empathic toward other minority groups compared to their heterosexual white peers. A new study from the University of Houston College of Education compared the attitudes of white heterosexual men to those of white sexual-minority men.

"Racial empathy is a crucial component of social justice," said Nathan Smith, associate professor in the college's Department of Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences. "'Coming out' as a sexual minority may lead to added introspection that, in turn, can lead to increased empathy towards other minority groups."

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Men, people over 65 sleep better when they have access to nature

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoic-mpo082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Men, people over 65 sleep better when they have access to nature
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Men and persons age 65 and older who have access to natural surroundings, whether it's the green space of a nearby park or a sandy beach and an ocean view, report sleeping better, according to a new University of Illinois study published in Preventive Medicine.

"It's hard to overestimate the importance of high-quality sleep," said Diana Grigsby-Toussaint, a U of I professor of kinesiology and community health and a faculty member in the U of I's Division of Nutritional Sciences. "Studies show that inadequate sleep is associated with declines in mental and physical health, reduced cognitive function, and increased obesity. This new study shows that exposure to a natural environment may help people get the sleep they need."

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Medical terms lead to divide between parents and doctors

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uom-mtl082415.php

Public Release: 24-Aug-2015
Medical terms lead to divide between parents and doctors
When discussing a child's symptoms, labels such as 'pink eye' can dictate how medical decisions are made
University of Missouri-Columbia

Few things are more stressful than dealing with a sick child. From discussing treatment with a pediatrician to complying with day care policies, a parent must consider many factors when making a decision about their child's health. Now, a recent study from the University of Missouri and the University of Michigan is shedding light on the significant divide that can exist between patients and physicians about the same terminology--especially when it comes to discussing "pink eye," a particular flashpoint in childcare.

At least 2 million children with conjunctivitis, or "pink eye," visit a health care provider each year. Those visits can be quite confusing for parents as they communicate their child's symptoms with pediatricians, especially since not all visits will require antibiotics as treatment. The study, by Laura Scherer, assistant professor of psychological sciences in the College of Arts and Science at MU, finds that the "pink eye" label, when applied to eye symptoms, can mislead parents into wanting antibiotics, even after being informed that the antibiotics are unnecessary.

"When it comes to communication between doctors and patients, words matter," Scherer said. "Likewise, our beliefs matter. Many parents believe that 'pink eye' is a serious infection that requires antibiotics. But for pediatricians, the words 'pink eye' could mean a bacterial infection, viral infection, or even just redness due to allergy. If doctors use a label that leads parents to believe that the symptoms require medication, then parents are likely to demand it. Our study showed that these labels may cause parents to want medication even when the doctor tries to later communicate that medications aren't necessary."

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Researchers found that parents who received the "eye infection" label only wanted antibiotics when they believed that antibiotics would be effective. However, parents who were given the "pink eye" label wanted antibiotics regardless of whether they were told that antibiotics were ineffective or not.

"Physicians may not realize that the words they use have different connotations to them than they do to patients," Scherer said. "This kind of miscommunication can potentially lead to overuse of antibiotics, which is causing increased antibiotic resistance. Past studies of primary care physicians have found that they prescribe antibiotics in 70 to 90 percent of eye infection cases, far exceeding the proportion of actual bacterial cases. Our study suggests that the words 'pink eye' makes parents believe the infection to be more contagious and to want medication even when it isn't necessary."

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New study indicates magnetic stimulation effective in reducing bed-wetting



Public Release: 23-Aug-2015
New study indicates magnetic stimulation effective in reducing bed-wetting
Non-invasive treatment shows promise in a new Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience report
IOS Press

Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, causes distress in children and young adults, as well as for their parents or caregivers. The causes are not fully understood and there may be both physiological and psychological components to the condition. In a new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, researchers report that repetitive sacral root magnetic stimulation (rSMS) can reduce the frequency of nighttime bedwetting and improve quality-of-life for sufferers.

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Polygamy and alcohol linked to physical abuse in African marriages

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/asa-paa081815.php

Public Release: 23-Aug-2015
Polygamy and alcohol linked to physical abuse in African marriages
American Sociological Association

African women in polygamous marriages or with alcoholic husbands have a significantly higher risk of being physically abused by their husbands than women in monogamous marriages or women whose husbands don't abuse alcohol, new research shows.

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One of the study's main goals was to show that risk factors for domestic violence differ throughout Africa, a point policymakers will hopefully keep in mind when drafting preventive measures, according to Christobel Asiedu.

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tags: spouse abuse

Couples that split childcare duties have higher quality relationships and sex lives

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/asa-cts081815.php

Public Release: 23-Aug-2015
Couples that split childcare duties have higher quality relationships and sex lives
American Sociological Association

Heterosexual couples that split childcare duties have higher quality relationships and sex lives than those who don't, according to new research that will be presented at the 110th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA).

•••••

Carlson, Hanson, and Fitzroy found that when women were responsible for most or all of the childcare, men and women reported lower quality relationships and sex lives compared to couples that split childcare responsibilities.

"One of the most important findings is that the only childcare arrangement that appears really problematic for the quality of both a couple's relationship and sex life is when the woman does most or all of the childcare," Carlson said.

Unlike mothers, fathers in a heterosexual relationship could take on most or all of the childcare responsibilities without negative effects on the quality of the couple's relationship. In addition, couples in which men did most or all of the childcare had just as much sex as couples with egalitarian arrangements, and were just as satisfied with the amount of sex they were having.

Interestingly, however, Carlson said that men who did most or all of the childcare reported having the lowest quality sex lives of men in the study, but their female partners reported having the highest quality sex lives of women in the study.

•••••

The three dimensions of childcare were physical/emotional childcare, interactive childcare, and passive childcare, which includes supervising and monitoring. The four tasks that the researchers looked at were who was responsible for making the rules for the children, who enforced the rules or punished the children when they broke them, who praised the children for their accomplishments, and who played with the children.

"We only had one physical task, and that task revolved primarily around playing with the children, including sports and games, but nothing about who feeds or bathes them," Carlson said.

•••••

Veterans live in more diverse neighborhoods than their civilian counterparts of same race

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/asa-vli081815.php

Public Release: 22-Aug-2015
Veterans live in more diverse neighborhoods than their civilian counterparts of same race
American Sociological Association

When members of the U.S. military leave the service, they tend to settle in neighborhoods with greater overall diversity than their civilian counterparts of the same race, according to a new study that will be presented at the 110th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA).

"It's encouraging that having served in the military appears to have a long-term impact on how people choose their neighborhoods," said study co-author Mary J. Fischer, an associate professor of sociology at the University of Connecticut. "According to the social contact hypothesis, racial attitudes are improved and stereotypes are broken when diverse groups come together under circumstances that promote meaningful cross-group interaction, such as in the military."

•••••

U.S. cities remain highly segregated by race despite several decades of laws against discrimination in housing and lending, according to Fischer. "One of the reasons racial segregation may self-perpetuate is that many whites have grown up in homogeneous communities and thus are more prone to rely on stereotypes to understand out-groups," Fischer said.

Fischer and her co-author Jacob S. Rugh, an assistant professor of sociology at Brigham Young University, note that making decisions on where to live after serving in the military is a strong test of the premise that prolonged interracial contact will have a positive effect on long-term intergroup relationships.

Fischer said this study along with related research she is working on with colleagues contribute to society's understanding of the potential longer-term effects of military service on race relations.

Sunday, August 23, 2015

July 2015 was the hottest month ever recorded

http://www.sciencealert.com/it-s-official-july-2015-was-the-hottest-month-on-record

Aug. 21, 2015


The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has announced that July 2015 was the hottest month on record, and 2015 is shaping up to be the hottest year. Outlined in its monthly global climate report, the NOAA's analysis has found that in July, the combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces was 16.61 degrees Celsius (61.898F), which is higher than it's ever been since we started keeping records in 1880. [Average for the whole earth, including poles and southern hemisphere, which is in their winter, the equivalent of northern hemisphere January.]

This is in spite of the fact that some places around the world, such as Australia, experienced colder than average temperatures that month. "There are some places across the globe that were cooler than average during July," NOAA climate scientist Jake Crouch told the ABC. "Even though it might be colder than average in our backyard, [that] does not necessarily reflect of the rest of the globe."

When the NOAA compared the global average temperartures for the first seven months of 2015, they found they were 0.85 degrees above the 20th century average, which overtakes the previous record set in 2010 by 0.09 degrees. In the coming months, we'll know if 2015 will overtake 2014 as the hottest year on record, but right now, it's looking very likely. "I would say [we're] 99 percent certain that it’s going to be the warmest year on record," NOAA climate scientist Jessica Blunden said during a press teleconference yesterday.

The oceans have certainly felt the recent increase in temperature, with the global average hitting 16.4 degrees. According to The Sydney Morning Herald, the 0.75-degree increase from the recent average was not only the largest on record for July, but for any month on record.

So what's causing such a historic rise in temperature? Crouch told the ABC that two main factors are at play: a long-term warming trend across the globe, plus the formation of El Nino in the equatorial Pacific region. The current iteration of El Nino has already been confirmed as one of the strongest on record, and it's predicted to linger well into 2016.
[And at least part of the reason this El Nino is so strong is because of global warming making it hotter than it otherwise would be.]

•••••

The NOAA report comes three months before the world's leaders will meet in Paris for the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the objective of which will be to formulate a legally binding and universal agreement on the future of Earth's climate, to which all the nations of the world will be held accountable. We can't wait to hear the results.

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Some single people are happy on their own, research finds

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/sfpa-ssp081815.php

Public Release: 21-Aug-2015
Some single people are happy on their own, research finds
Society for Personality and Social Psychology

People who fear relationship conflicts are just as happy when they are single or in a relationship, according to new research published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.

"It's a well-documented finding that single people tend to be less happy compared to those in a relationship, but that may not be true for everyone. Single people also can have satisfying lives," said lead researcher Yuthika Girme, a psychology doctoral candidate at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.

In a survey of more than 4,000 New Zealand residents, a nationally representative sample, people with high "avoidance social goals" - who try at all costs to avoid relationship disagreements and conflict - were just as happy being single as other people were in relationships. Being single may remove some of the anxiety triggered by relationship conflicts for those individuals, the study noted. Some previous research has shown that being single usually is associated with slightly lower life satisfaction and poorer physical and psychological health.

Conversely, the study found that participants with low avoidance goals who aren't concerned about the ups and downs of a relationship were less happy when they were single.

•••••

Trying too hard to avoid relationship conflicts actually may create more problems, Girme said. While high avoidance goals may help people be happier when they are single, it can have negative effects in a relationship, contributing to anxiety, loneliness, lower life satisfaction, and an unhealthy focus on negative memories, according to prior research.

With a high divorce rate, solo parenting, and many people delaying marriage to pursue career goals, the number of single people is on the rise. Single people now outnumber married adults in the United States, with more than 128 million singles representing 51 percent of the adult population.

•••••

The study also analyzed the effects of "approach social goals," where people seek to maintain relationships by enhancing intimacy and fostering growth together as partners. Study participants with high approach goals were generally more satisfied with their lives - but also experienced the most happiness when they were in a relationship compared to those who were single. The researchers found similar results in a separate survey of 187 University of Auckland students.

"Having greater approach goals tends to have the best outcomes for people when they are in a relationship, but they also experience the most hurt and pain when they are single," Girme said.

Male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoe-pas081915.php

Public Release: 21-Aug-2015
Persist and shout: Male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise
UK and US research shows birds 'shout' to be heard over the noise produced by man-made activity
University of Exeter

Birds 'shout' to be heard over the noise produced by man-made activity, new research has shown.

The innovative study, led by an expert from the University of Exeter, looked at how bluebirds altered their songs in response to increases in nearby background noise caused, in many cases, by human activities such as traffic.

It found that the birds altered their songs immediately after noise levels intensified, making 'real-time' adjustments in order to produce songs that are both louder and lower-pitched. The results suggest that birds are able to perceive increases in noise and respond accordingly - not unlike humans do when in raucous settings.

•••••

Dr Swaddle said: "Unfortunately, the world is getting so noisy that even the most flexible of species will eventually reach a threshold beyond which they will have difficulty communicating--which will impact their ability to breed successfully. When we build roads and airports near human neighbourhoods, we employ noise abatement protocols in an effort to mitigate against the negative impacts of noise pollution. It is time to apply similar caution to conservation, management, and landscaping plans that impact wildlife and their habitats."

As Ice Age ended, greenhouse gas rise was lead factor in melting of Earth's glaciers

Of course, nature doesn't distinguish between an increase in CO2 levels from natural causes and from human causes.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/bc-aia082015.php

Public Release: 21-Aug-2015
As Ice Age ended, greenhouse gas rise was lead factor in melting of Earth's glaciers
New findings have implications for recent carbon dioxide rise and melting glaciers
Boston College

A fresh look at some old rocks has solved a crucial mystery of the last Ice Age, yielding an important new finding that connects to the global retreat of glaciers caused by climate change today, according to a new study by a team of climate scientists.

For decades, researchers examining the glacial meltdown that ended 11,000 years ago took into account a number of contributing factors, particularly regional influences such as solar radiation, ice sheets and ocean currents.

But a reexamination of more than 1,000 previously studied glacial boulders has produced a more accurate timetable for the pre-historic meltdown and pinpoints the rise in carbon dioxide - then naturally occurring - as the primary driving factor in the simultaneous global retreat of glaciers at the close of the last Ice Age, the researchers report in the journal Nature Communications.

"Glaciers are very sensitive to temperature. When you get the world's glaciers retreating all at the same time, you need a broad, global reason for why the world's thermostat is going up," said Boston College Assistant Professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences Jeremy Shakun. "The only factor that explains glaciers melting all around the world in unison during the end of the Ice Age is the rise in greenhouse gases."

The researchers found that regional factors caused differences in the precise timing and pace of glacier retreat from one place to another, but carbon dioxide was the major driver of the overall global meltdown, said Shakun, a co-author of the report "Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the last deglaciation."

"This is a lot like today," said Shakun. "In any given decade you can always find some areas where glaciers are holding steady or even advancing, but the big picture across the world and over the long run is clear - carbon dioxide is making the ice melt."

While 11,000 years ago may seem far too distant for a point of comparison, it was only a moment ago in geological time. The team's findings fix even greater certainty on scientific conclusions that the dramatic increase in manmade greenhouse gases will eradicate many of the world's glaciers by the end of this century.

"This has relevance to today since we've already raised CO2 by more than it increased at the end of the Ice Age, and we're on track to go up much higher this century -- which adds credence to the view that most of the world's glaciers will be largely gone within the next few centuries, with negative consequences such as rising sea level and depleted water resources," said Shakun.

•••••

"Our study really removes any doubt as to the leading cause of the decline of the glaciers by 11,000 years ago - it was the rising levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere," said Shakun.

Carbon dioxide levels rose from approximately 180 parts per million to 280 parts per million at the end of the last Ice Age, which spanned nearly 7,000 years. Following more than a century of industrialization, carbon dioxide levels have now risen to approximately 400 parts per million.

"This tells us we are orchestrating something akin to the end of an Ice Age, but much faster. As the amount of carbon dioxide continues to increase, glaciers around the world will retreat," said Shakun.


tags: historical global warming, historical climage change

Something to chew on -- millions of lives blighted by smokeless tobacco

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/uoy-stc082115.php

Public Release: 21-Aug-2015
Something to chew on -- millions of lives blighted by smokeless tobacco
More than a quarter of a million people die each year from using smokeless tobacco, researchers at the University of York have concluded
University of York

More than a quarter of a million people die each year from using smokeless tobacco, researchers at the University of York have concluded.

Millions more have their lives shortened by ill health due to the effects of chewing tobacco-based products, the study reveals.

Researchers say it is the first time the global impact of smokeless tobacco consumption on adults has been assessed.

•••••

Dr Kamran Siddiqi, senior lecturer in epidemiology and public health at the Department of Health Sciences/Hull York Medical School, said: "It is possible that these figures are underestimated and future studies may reveal that the impact is even bigger. We need a global effort to try and address and control smokeless tobacco."

The study, which was funded by Leeds City Council and the Medical Research Council, estimates that in 2010 alone smokeless tobacco resulted in more than 62,000 deaths due to cancers of the mouth, pharynx and oesophagus and accounted for more than 200,00 deaths from heart disease.

•••••

Weak doses of radiation prolong life of female flies, scientists find

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/miop-wdo082115.php

Public Release: 21-Aug-2015
Weak doses of radiation prolong life of female flies, scientists find
These findings could reveal the genes that enable the prolongation of life and in the future lead to the creation of a means to prevent aging in humans
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Scientists at MIPT have revealed that weak doses of gamma radiation prolong the life of drosophila flies (fruit flies), and that the effect is stronger in females than in males. These findings could reveal the genes that enable the prolongation of life and in the future lead to the creation of a means to prevent aging in humans. The results of their study can be found in an article recently published in the prestigious scientific journal PLOS ONE.

A group of scientists from the Laboratory of the Genetics of Aging and Longevity at MIPT, the Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology at the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Komi Research Center and Syktyvkar University under the leadership of Alexey Moskalev is studying the mechanism of radiation hormesis, the effect by which moderate stress has a stimulating effect on an organism and enables the prolongation of life. This effect was first observed at the end of the XIX century by the German pharmacologist Hugo Shulz who discovered that small doses of poison speed up the growth of yeast cells. The effect was later found in many other organisms, in particular in peppermint and roundworms.

"Small doses of poison or the moderate influence of other stress factors affect the organism in such a way that the stimulation effect overcomes the harm. As a consequence, this can lead to an increase in life expectancy," explains Svetlana Zhikrivetskaya, lead author of the article.

In recent years scientists have been actively studying the influence of radiation hormesis, observing beneficial effects of weak doses of ionizing radiation. It is a commonly accepted view that there can be no safe doses of radiation, as any radiation will damage the molecules of DNA. An acceptable background is considered to be that at which the risk of cancer is negligibly small.

However, a number of experiments have demonstrated an improvement "under radiation" of indicators of life expectancy in mice and cell cultures.

•••••

"We have discovered that several genes which are involved in the repair (restoration) of DNA are superstressed for a period of 48-77 hours after exposure to radiation. In a number of cases, the sex of the fly affected whether genes demonstrated superstress," says Zhikrivetskaya.

•••••

There’s a Shortage of Cops on Wall Street — and New Trouble Brewing

http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/Columns/2015/08/21/There-s-Shortage-Cops-Wall-Street-and-New-Trouble-Brewing?utm_campaign=548f5168cb03a93709042da0&utm_source=boomtrain&utm_medium=email&bt_alias=eyJ1c2VySWQiOiIxMzFmYjYxMC01M2E2LTQ1MDgtYWEzMS0yNmRhNDRhZDQwYTYifQ%3D%3D

By David Dayen
August 21, 2015

Elizabeth Warren likes to refer to financial regulators as “cops on the beat.” If that’s the case, we’re having a cop shortage.

Numerous high-level positions at multiple federal agencies overseeing the banks have gone unfilled since Republicans took over the Senate. This increases the power of habitually more conservative and bank-friendly staff, creates delays on the still-unfinished Dodd-Frank reform law and has stymied positive policy shifts. Given election-season pressures and ever-present gridlock, there’s only a short window of action before these key regulatory positions remain vacant for the rest of the Obama presidency.

•••••

The Senate Banking Committee is sitting on 11 nominations, including high-ranking positions at the Treasury Department, the Securities Investor Protection Commission, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and more. A nomination hearing on Sept. 10 for a Treasury undersecretary for terrorism and financial crimes will be the first since Republican Richard Shelby of Alabama took the gavel of the committee.

•••••

It’s true that the Obama administration has taken its sweet time with naming replacements for financial regulators. They still have yet to name a Fed vice chair of financial supervision, a position created five years ago by Dodd-Frank. But Shelby is unquestionably sitting on the nominations. The Wall Street Journal has speculated that Shelby is waiting for the White House to name one of his former aides, Hester Peirce, to an open SEC slot.

[Since President Obama knows Shelby will block his nominations, it is not irrational that he's not spending a lot of time on this.]

So what is the effect of all these vacancies? First of all, there remains plenty of unfinished business in Dodd-Frank rulemaking. According to law firm Davis Polk & Wardwell, 143 of the 390 total rules in Dodd-Frank, over 35 percent of the total, have yet to be finalized. Vacant seats reduce the ability to complete those rules.

It also increases the power of those who haven’t left, which can be a problem. For instance, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors has had two open spots for well over a year. But the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which sets monetary and bank regulatory policy, includes five of the 12 regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents. Vacancies on the Board of Governors translate into disproportionate power for the regional presidents. And three of the 12 regional presidents, including recent selection Robert Kaplan, formerly held high-level positions at Goldman Sachs. Kaplan believes interest rates should rise and that Dodd-Frank should be streamlined, with hundreds of regulations tossed out.

[When interest rates rise, unemployment goes up. This is really not a good time for that to happen.]

•••••

There’s never a good time for a backlog of empty seats at the financial regulators. But with foreclosure filings inching up for the last five months, bubble-era states like Florida showing inflated home prices and the return of the private-label mortgage-backed securities that drove the financial crisis, fears of a regulatory apparatus asleep at the wheel are justified, if at a lower level than 2008.

And that just covers the concerns of the last crisis. There are other trouble spots out there, from high leverage in energy-sector loans and rising defaults to instability in China and emerging markets infecting domestic financial firms. The shadow banking sector has still yet to be tamed by any rulemaking or supervision. The distortions and power shifts caused by vacancies make it difficult for an already-stressed regulatory apparatus to deal with fast-moving changes and tamp down threats to safety.

Unfortunately, there’s not much reason to believe that this will get worked out. Senate Republicans have little incentive to work to confirm a Democratic president’s nominees. The White House, knowing this, has little incentive to nominate anyone. And so everything just drags along, like a hockey team playing with one man in the penalty box for period after period.

Long Hours at Work Are Costing You More Than Your Social Life

http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/2015/08/20/Long-Hours-Work-Are-Costing-You-More-Your-Social-Life?utm_campaign=548f5168cb03a93709042da0&utm_source=boomtrain&utm_medium=email&bt_alias=eyJ1c2VySWQiOiIxMzFmYjYxMC01M2E2LTQ1MDgtYWEzMS0yNmRhNDRhZDQwYTYifQ%3D%3D

By Millie Dent
August 20, 2015

Putting in long hours at the office might impress your boss, but they’re certainly not helping your health.

A new study published in The Lancet found that individuals who worked 55 hours per week or more had a 1-3 times greater risk of a stroke compared to those who worked 40 hours a week. Long working hours were also associated with an increased chance of coronary heart disease, but this association was found to be weaker than that for a stroke.

The analysis was the largest study conducted thus far of the affiliation between working hours and cardiovascular health, including data on more than 600,000 individuals in Europe, the U.S., and Australia.

Researchers believe the constant triggering of the stress response from overwork induces the stroke, often resulting in sudden death. In addition, behavioral activities that stem from the longer hours also contribute to the heightened chance of a stroke.

Employees who work longer hours are found to rely more on heavy alcohol consumption as a way to reduce stress, but drinking only increases the risk for all types of strokes. In addition, more time at a desk means long periods of physical inactivity, which can increase the risk of stroke.

A study by Credit Loan shows that employees worldwide are working more than 40 hours per week. The U.S. leads the pack with the highest percentages of overtime workers – 85.8 percent of males and 66.5 percent of females.

•••••

Earbuds…Worse for Your Hearing Than You Think

http://newtonhearing.com/earbudsworse-for-your-hearing-than-you-think/

June 10, 2015
By Rhonda Ruby, West Newton Hearing Center

An article published online by NBC News outlined the impact of exposure to noise on the ability to hear.

“Earlier this year the World Health Organization warned that 1.1 billion young people are at risk of hearing loss because of personal audio devices, such as smartphones, and damaging levels of sound at entertainment venues like electronic dance music festivals, where noise levels can top 120 decibels for hours. Hearing loss among today’s teens is about 30 percent higher than in the 1980s and 1990s, Cherukuri estimates.”

Unfortunately one of the primary causative factors may the earbud. An earbud is a very small headphone, worn inside the ear or just against the outer opening of the ear canal.

Colter Hettich of the New York Daily News reports that “earbud headphones, even at low volume, may be causing permanent damage to your hearing.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School’s Eaton Peabody Laboratory learned you can lose up to 90 percent of your cochlear nerve fibers — without losing the ability to detect a tone in quiet. But once background noise is introduced, hearing ability drops dramatically. So, hair cells may be completely intact but hearing still lost if the nerve synapses are damaged.

Earbud headphones deliver stronger, more damaging waves straight to the cochlea — even at lower volumes. And without a known treatment for cochlear nerve damage, researchers strongly recommend exercising caution.”

Avoid the use of earbuds, instead try earphones that fit over the entire outer ear. Over the ear headphones provide a more natural delivery of sound and lessen the ambient noise. Those two reasons usually allow over the ear headphone users to listen to music at a softer volume setting. The 60/60 rule is a good rule of thumb. No more than 60% of the volume for no more than 60 minutes.

I found out about this study at the following link, which has a list of some musicians with hearing loss, probably from their own performances.

The Fiscal Times

Below are just a few of the musicians who are suffering from hearing loss:

Chris Martin of Coldplay suffers from Tinnitus

Tinnitus and hearing loss. Rock and Roll Hall of Famer, Neil Young
Also part of Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young

With Black Sabbath, Ozzfest concerts, Ozzy Osbourne has suffered serious hearing loss

Academy Award Nominee and Golden Globe Winner Phil Collins lost hearing in his left ear

Sir George Martin, known as the “Fifth Beatle” suffered hearing loss.

Will.i.am, a founding member of The Black Eyed Peas, suffers from painful tinnitus

The Beach Boys Brian Wilson lost his hearing in his right ear because of abuse

From the Yardbirds to his own groups, Jeff Beck also suffers from painful tinnitus

Eric Clapton—one of the all-time greatest guitarists—once again suffers from tinnitus

Pete Townshend, The Who, is deaf

Ludwig von Beethoven began to lose his hearing at age 30. Fifteen years later, he was almost totally deaf.